孩子睡不過夜的調整方式



 


國外統計嬰幼兒睡眠問題大約4-5個小孩就會有1個,亞洲國家的發生率更高。

這裡整理一下過去在部落格寫過的相關文章和摘要,希望對家長們會有一點點幫忙。


大原則如下


建立適當的作息和就寢時間

 

其實愈累的孩子晚上醒來的時間愈長;所以雖然白天要給孩子一定的放電活動,但是如果過度放電也不太好;這個情況或許給孩子小睡片刻,加上提早一點點的就寢時間,反而會讓孩子夜晚睡眠睡得好一點點。



嘗試建立安撫物

 

  • 安撫物指的是某種孩子覺得有安全感的物體,比方說某個玩偶、某條小被被或是某個玩具之類,所以如果孩子半夜醒來可以很快得到他的安撫物,就能夠較快安定下來重新入睡。但是並不是每個孩子都能順利成功建立幫助睡眠的安撫物,有時候孩子是某段時間喜歡A;隔一陣子喜歡B,在嘗試建立的過程中,換來換去是很常見的。

  • 幼兒大約在8-12個月大,會慢慢開始對特定物品產生依戀感,慢慢持續到3歲左右,然後再逐漸減低依賴感,通常上小學前就會消失(戒掉)

  •  一開始通常會在孩子心情愉快的時候,例如喝奶或和爸爸媽媽玩的時候,將安撫物拿出來給孩子使用,讓孩子可以不討厭這個新物品;然後再慢慢增加出現頻率或時間。應用在睡眠議題上,大概是在家長幫孩子作睡前儀式時就是一個很不錯的時刻。
 


 

 適合的睡前儀式

 

已經有太多研究證實睡前儀式會改善睡眠問題。建立睡前儀式的方法爸爸媽媽可以先看這裡,在此重覆提醒幾個重點

  • 睡前儀式的內含項目不要變動太大,而且最好是每個晚上都能有
  • 不要太在意時間長度:隨孩子每天的活力精神狀況調整。
  • 如果可能的話,不要把餵奶放在睡前儀式的最後一項
 


 

 適合的睡眠環境

 

  • 睡眠的房間要注意噪音、亮度、和溫度;不要有太大佈置變動
  • 最好能固定睡在同一張床
  • 嬰幼兒要有安全的睡眠環境:床上東西愈少愈好
  • 家長不要在陪伴時玩手機等3C產品,因為藍光會延遲褪黑激素的分泌而且也會引起孩子的注意力。


 

將稍微清醒的孩子放在床上

 

  • 這是最重要一步:孩子要睡過夜,前提就是要能慢慢有自行入睡的能力;所以當作完睡前儀式之後,要給孩子練習從清醒到睡著的機會。
  • 沒有入睡困擾的孩子,通常都可以在30分鐘之內入睡成功
 

 


晚上醒來之後怎麼辦?

 

  • 家長在作上述調整之後,剛開始的1,2周,如果孩子還是常常夜醒,可以考慮暫時維持原本的安撫方式(例如:拍、抱、搖)讓孩子快速入睡;但如果3,4周之後,孩子還是常常醒來,在確認孩子沒有任何生理不適之後,家長或許可以考慮採行睡眠練習連結1
 
  • 此外因為幼兒和學齡前兒童容易發生夜驚,所以孩子如果常常前半夜哭醒的話,建議家長可以記錄哭醒的時間點和錄影發作的形態,也能提供進一步的資料。

 


結論

如果年齡6個月大以上的孩子睡眠情況不穩定(每周至少發生超過3個晚上)的持續時間超過3個月,建議家長可以考慮作一些上述調整來幫忙孩子好好睡哦。

 

 

 

 

 

 

==========English version, translated by ChatGpt=======

 

Infant and toddler sleep problems are common, with about 1 in 4-5 children affected, and the prevalence is even higher in Asian countries. Here's a summary of relevant articles and tips from my blog to help parents manage their children's sleep issues.



Main Principles


1. **Establish Appropriate Routines and Bedtimes**

   - Children who are overly tired tend to wake up more at night. While it's important for children to have physical activities during the day, excessive tiredness isn't beneficial. Allowing short naps during the day, combined with a slightly earlier bedtime, can improve night-time sleep.



2. **Try Establishing a Comfort Object**

   - Comfort objects, such as a favorite doll, blanket, or toy, can provide a sense of security and help the child fall back asleep if they wake up at night. However, not all children can easily form an attachment to a comfort object, and preferences may change over time.
   - Typically, infants develop attachments to specific items around 8-12 months, continuing until about 3 years old, then gradually decreasing, usually disappearing before starting school.
   - Introduce the comfort object during pleasant times, like feeding or playing, and gradually increase its presence. A good time to use it is during the bedtime routine.


3. **Appropriate Bedtime Rituals**

   - Numerous studies have shown that bedtime rituals improve sleep problems. The ritual should be consistent each night without much variation. The duration isn't critical and can be adjusted according to the child's daily energy and mood. Avoid making feeding the last part of the bedtime ritual.



4. **Suitable Sleeping Environment**

   - The sleeping room should have controlled noise, brightness, and temperature, with minimal changes in decor. It's best if the child sleeps in the same bed consistently. Ensure a safe sleeping environment with minimal objects in the bed. Parents should avoid using electronic devices like smartphones during bedtime, as the blue light can delay melatonin secretion and distract the child.



5. **Put the Child to Bed Slightly Awake**

   - The most crucial step is allowing the child to develop the ability to fall asleep independently. After the bedtime routine, give the child a chance to transition from being awake to asleep. A child without sleep issues typically falls asleep within 30 minutes.



What to Do if the Child Wakes Up at Night?

   - Initially, continue using the usual comforting methods (patting, holding, rocking) for quick sleep. If frequent night awakenings persist after 3-4 weeks, and the child is not experiencing any physical discomfort, consider implementing sleep training (link 1).
   - Record and observe the timing and nature of night awakenings, as night terrors are common in toddlers and preschool children.



Conclusion


If a child over 6 months old has unstable sleep (more than 3 nights per week) for over 3 months, parents should consider making the above adjustments to improve sleep quality.

熱門文章

  • 最近有機會整理一些門診常被問到3個問題,這一篇主要針對年齡介於1到2歲之間的孩子。
  • 作息記錄 進入3C盛行,手機不離身的時代, 記錄幼兒作息,尤其是睡眠時間的方法, 從傳統的紙筆(睡眠日誌),也進化到許許多多的App和穿戴裝置。…
  • 針對孩子的睡眠問題,家家有本難念的經, 每個家庭也有都自己的解決方法。 而睡眠醫學領域裡,比較能被量化分析的,大概就屬 行為治療 了。 …
  • 1. 四歲六個月大男童,過往沒有重大傷病史,懷孕和出生過程均正常;四歲之前的睡眠狀況沒明顯異常。來診時,由母親帶來,表示從四歲開始,晚上入睡後2 - 3…
  • 有些孩子明明晚上都有睡飽睡好,為什麼白天還會一直想睡覺呢?甚至講話講沒幾句就會睡著!上課時,明明是一堂老師上得很棒也很有興趣的課,卻只要坐在椅子…

Archive

加入好友