三歲以下的小孩好好睡,睡前您作對了哪些事?

對於不好好睡覺的幼兒家長,有時候不禁會問自己該作些什麼來幫助孩子好眠?有沒有什麼比較科學化的證據呢?還真地有哦!今年12月剛發表在journal of sleep research一篇系統性回顧文章,就分析哪些家長行為與幼兒的睡眠狀況相關。

【促進良好睡眠的4件事】

▍睡前儀式

  • 一致的睡前儀式:可以增加睡眠時間長度,加速入睡速度,提早就寢時間,以後有睡眠問題的機會比較低。
  • 適宜的睡眠儀式內容(通常是幫助孩子過渡到促進睡眠的放鬆狀態的平靜活動,例如閱讀書籍、擁抱/親吻照顧者、向家人說晚安): 增加睡眠時間長度,提早就寢時間,加速入睡速度和減少夜間醒來。

▍睡在嬰兒床中(與睡在床上相比)

  • 與更長的總睡眠時間,快點睡著,早點睡,夜間更長的連續睡眠時間,更少的夜間醒來,更少的抗拒睡覺情形相關。

▍較早的就寢時間

  • 與更長的睡眠總時間相關。

▍睡眠應用程式的使用(指的是可以播放音樂或睡前故事的app)

  • 與改善的兒童睡眠結果相關。
 

 

▍與睡不好相關的5件事

1.較多的父母在睡前的存在和參與

  • 與較短的睡眠時間長度,較慢入睡,以及更多的夜間醒來相關。

2.餵到睡著(feeding to sleep)

  • 與較短的睡眠時間長度、較慢入睡、更多的夜間醒來相關

3.晚睡

  • 與較長的入睡時間,更多的睡眠問題,以及更多的夜間醒來相關。

4.在睡覺時使用屏幕(例如電視)

  • 與更晚的就寢時間,較短的睡眠時間長度,增加的睡眠變異性,減少的入睡時間,減少的睡眠鞏固,以及更多父母報告的睡眠問題相關。

5,睡醒時不在自己的嬰兒床

  • 與較短的睡眠時間長度相關,如果睡眠結束時的地點是父母的床,則與更差的兒童睡眠結果(短睡眠時間長度,入睡困難和夜間醒來)相關。
 
 
 

▍有好有壞的3件事

1.睡眠時有一條小毯子 

  • 較慢入睡,但可以睡得比較長,比較少的夜間醒來

2.吸奶嘴或手指入睡 

  • 較慢入睡,較多的夜間醒來,但可以睡得比較長

3.夜間哺餵母奶

  • 增加夜間醒來
     


▍有討論空間的是…

親子共眠(co-sleep)

  • 這是東西方文化差異,西方普偏認為共眠是睡眠障礙的表現之一,但亞洲國家親子共眠的比例相當高;所以這篇研究對於親子共眠就沒有辦法下定論

▍個人看法

回顧性文章往往沒辦法提出太多新的建議,例如 睡眠儀式的重要性、不要餵到睡著、早點就寢…都是家長們都知道的事;但研究總是給了一些支持的證據,提醒家長作得對的事情就繼續作,有可以改變的地方,我們就改變一下,一起試著讓孩子睡的更好。



 
Reference
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
================English Version, translated by ChatGpt=============
 
For parents of toddlers who struggle with sleep, they might wonder what they can do to help their child sleep better. Is there any scientific evidence? Indeed, there is! A systematic review article published in the Journal of Sleep Research in December analyzed which parental behaviors are related to young children's sleep.

Four Things That Promote Good Sleep

1. **Bedtime Rituals:**

   - Consistent bedtime rituals can increase sleep duration, speed up sleep onset, and lead to earlier bedtimes, reducing the likelihood of sleep problems.
   - Appropriate ritual activities (calm activities that help transition the child into a sleep-promoting relaxed state, such as reading, hugging/kissing the caregiver, saying goodnight to family members) can increase sleep duration, advance bedtime, speed up sleep onset, and reduce night wakings.

2. **Sleeping in a Crib (as opposed to a bed):**

   - Associated with longer total sleep time, faster sleep onset, earlier bedtimes, longer continuous sleep at night, fewer night wakings, and less resistance to going to bed.

3. **Earlier Bedtimes:**

   - Related to longer total sleep duration.

4. **Use of Sleep Apps (apps that play music or bedtime stories):**

   - Associated with improved child sleep outcomes.
 


Five Things Related to Poor Sleep:

1. **More Parental Presence and Involvement at Bedtime:**

   - Associated with shorter sleep duration, slower sleep onset, and more night wakings.

2. **Feeding to Sleep:**

   - Linked to shorter sleep duration, slower sleep onset, and more night wakings.

3. **Late Bedtimes:**

   - Related to longer sleep onset times, more sleep problems, and more night wakings.

4. **Using Screens (e.g., TV) at Bedtime:**

   - Associated with later bedtimes, shorter sleep duration, increased sleep variability, reduced sleep onset time, reduced sleep consolidation, and more parent-reported sleep problems.

5. **Waking up Somewhere Other than Their Own Crib:**

   - Related to shorter sleep duration, and if the sleep ends in the parents' bed, associated with poorer child sleep outcomes (shorter sleep duration, sleep onset difficulties, and night wakings).

 
 

Three Things with Both Good and Bad Aspects

1. **Sleeping with a Security Blanket:**

   - Slower sleep onset but can lead to longer sleep and fewer night wakings.

2. **Sucking on a Pacifier or Thumb to Sleep:**

   - Slower sleep onset, more night wakings, but can lead to longer sleep.

3. **Nighttime Breastfeeding:**

   - Increases night wakings.

 
 

Area for Discussion

Co-sleeping

There's a cultural difference between the East and the West, with co-sleeping often viewed as a sleep disorder in Western cultures, while it's quite common in Asian countries. Therefore, the study couldn't conclusively determine the effects of co-sleeping.

 
 

Personal Opinion

Retrospective articles often can't provide many new suggestions, such as the importance of bedtime rituals, not feeding to sleep, and going to bed early – things that parents already know. However, research always provides some supportive evidence, reminding parents to continue doing the right things and to make changes where possible, trying together to improve their children's sleep.

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