你家小孩幾點睡?

 
上一篇文章中提到讓小孩早點睡可以睡得比較好,但是什麼時候才是適合的就寢時間呢?不同年齡的小孩是不是就有不同的時間點睡覺呢?

國外研究數據

曾有一篇利用腕動表資料所作的統合分析,分析了不同年齡層的孩子的這些數值。這是目前最客觀的數據。
  • 3-5歲 平均就寢時間是 9:31pm, 起床時間是7:07am
  • 6-8歲:沒數據
  • 9-11歲 平均就寢時間是 10:04pm, 起床時間是6:57am
  • 11-13歲 平均就寢時間是 11:09pm, 起床時間是7:17am
  • 15-18歲 平均就寢時間是 11:27pm, 起床時間是7:21am
隨著年紀增長,就寢時間愈來愈晚,起床時間也延後。其他數據如下圖。
 
 

臺灣的狀況呢?

國小1-3年級

中原大學心理學系詹雅雯老師、清華大學彭志業老師和我曾經針對北部國小1-3年級(6-9歲)的251位孩子與家長作過一份調查研究,利用睡眠問卷(CHSQ)和睡眠日誌發現這群孩子的週間平均就寢時間是 9:48pm, 起床時間是6:55am; 周末平均就寢時間是 10:19pm, 起床時間是7:58am。
 


陽明院區睡眠中心資料

2023年我有機會在臺灣小兒神經醫學會的研討會上整理從2015年到2023年,在睡眠中心作過睡眠生理檢查的大約200位孩子所填寫的兒童睡眠問卷(PSQ)資料。仿照國外腕表資料的年齡分層,發現

  • 與國外資料相比,這群孩子在周間(星期一到星期五)的就寢時間和國外相差不遠,但起床時間在學齡期之後就愈來愈早起。
    • 3歲以下:平均就寢時間是 9:57pm, 起床時間是7:35am
    • 3-5歲: 平均就寢時間是 9:47pm, 起床時間是7:35am
    • 5-8歲:平均就寢時間是 9:51pm, 起床時間是7:16am
    • 8-11歲 平均就寢時間是 9:59pm, 起床時間是7:07am
    • 11-14歲 平均就寢時間是 10:27pm, 起床時間是6:53am
    • 14-18歲 平均就寢時間是 11:38pm, 起床時間是6:34am
  • 11歲以後,晚睡的現象更明顯,然後在周末就會有明顯的補眠現象;會比平常的起床時間晚了快3小時。

如果用進小學的年齡(6歲)和國中的年齡(12歲)來區分,也可以發現這群孩子在週間與周末的總睡眠時間是明顯有差異的。


COVID-19疫情有影響嗎?

長庚金韋志醫師的研究發現臺灣疫情爆發時的軟性封城也會造成孩子的晚睡晚起。


 

結論 

綜合過去的研究和上述發現,臺灣學齡兒童的睡眠不足是普遍現象,學業是主要影響因子。這大概要靠有關單位大刀闊斧的改革才有辦法改變了。







==============English version, translated by ChatGpt===========


"In the previous article, it was mentioned that children sleeping earlier can sleep better, but what is the appropriate bedtime? Do children of different ages have different sleep times?

International Research Data

There was a meta-analysis using wristwatch data that analyzed these values for children of different age groups. This is currently the most objective data available.
- 3-5 years old: Average bedtime is 9:31 PM, wake-up time is 7:07 AM
- 6-8 years old: No data
- 9-11 years old: Average bedtime is 10:04 PM, wake-up time is 6:57 AM
- 11-13 years old: Average bedtime is 11:09 PM, wake-up time is 7:17 AM
- 15-18 years old: Average bedtime is 11:27 PM, wake-up time is 7:21 AM
As children get older, bedtime becomes later, and wake-up time is delayed. Other data are as shown in the figure below.

What about the situation in Taiwan?

Primary School Grades 1-3

Professor Chan Ya-Wen of the Psychology Department at Chung Yuan Christian University, Professor Peng Chih-Yeh of Tsing Hua University, and I conducted a survey study on 251 children and parents of grades 1-3 in northern Taiwan primary schools. Using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and sleep diaries, we found that the average bedtime for these children during the week is 9:48 PM, and the wake-up time is 6:55 AM; the average weekend bedtime is 10:19 PM, and the wake-up time is 7:58 AM.

Data from Taipei city hospital, Yangming Branch 

In 2023, I had the opportunity to compile data from about 200 children who underwent sleep physiology tests at the Sleep Center from 2015 to 2023 at a conference of the Taiwan Pediatric Neurology Society. Using the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ), and following the age stratification of the international wristwatch data, it was found that

compared to the international data, these children go to bed later.
After the age of 11, the phenomenon of going to bed late becomes more apparent, and then there is a significant catch-up sleep phenomenon on weekends; they sleep nearly 3 hours more than on weekdays.

If we divide the group into school-entry age (6 years old) and junior high school age (12 years old), we can also see a significant difference in total sleep time between weekdays and weekends for these children.

Has the COVID-19 pandemic had an impact?

Research by Dr. Jin Wei-Zhi of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital found that the soft lockdown during the outbreak in Taiwan also caused children to go to bed and get up late.

Conclusion

Combining past research and the above findings, the lack of sleep among school-aged children in Taiwan is a common phenomenon, with academics being the main influencing factor. It seems that only bold reforms by the relevant authorities can change this situation."

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