到幾歲才會睡得比較好?!



 


科學家們透過研究「法國兒童長期追蹤研究」(Étude Longitudinale Française depuis l’Enfance, ELFE)中的9273名兒童,從1歲到5.5歲的睡眠模式,發現了五種不同的睡眠多軌跡組別,並分析了這些睡眠模式與早期家庭環境、母親狀況及孩子特質之間的關聯。

 

五種睡眠多軌跡組別:

  • 良好睡眠者:晚上睡眠時間較短,但日間睡眠時間較長。
  • 長時間睡眠者:晚上和白天的睡眠時間都較長。
  • 良好睡眠但偶有入睡困難者:晚上和白天的睡眠時間都較長,但在3.5歲時有睡眠入睡困難的高峰。
  • 夜間覺醒和入睡困難改善組:晚上睡眠時間短但逐漸增長,夜間覺醒和入睡困難情況有所改善。
  • 持續性夜間覺醒和入睡困難組:從1歲到5.5歲期間,夜間覺醒和入睡困難情況持續存在。

 

 
 

 我們可以發現,雖然一開始的差異似乎有點大,但最後在2-3歲的時候會趨於穩定

 

 

至於白天小睡

由上圖可以得知這個研究的小孩,大約在3歲半的時候就沒有白天小睡。而作者也告訴我們這群小孩在不同年齡的睡眠時間和分布:晚上睡眠時間大約10-11小時,白天小睡時間慢慢減少。
 





為什麼有的孩子睡眠不好?早期的環境影響很大!

  • 媽媽的心情也很重要:媽媽在懷孕時如果心情不好,可能會影響寶寶的睡眠,尤其是那些晚上經常醒或者入睡困難的孩子。
  • 喝奶的習慣也關鍵:原來,寶寶的睡眠問題可能不是因為喝母乳本身,而是跟大人的習慣有關,比如夜裡餵奶的方式。
  • 用奶嘴或吸手指有幫助嗎?:研究發現,1歲時吸奶嘴或手指的寶寶晚上睡得更好,這可能有助於他們更容易入睡。
  • 自行入睡的能力:1歲時,孩子可以在沒有家長在的房間自己睡著,可以睡得比較好。
  • 入睡和起床都是在自己床上的孩子,也會睡得比較好;白天照顧者是家庭成員之一,也會睡得比較好。

 

結論

所以,我們該怎麼做呢? 這項研究告訴我們,培養好的睡眠習慣很重要。家長們需要了解孩子的睡眠需求,幫助他們建立良好的睡眠模式。比如,幫助孩子學會自己安撫自己,不要總依賴大人哄睡。而且,如果媽媽懷孕期間心情不好,也可能要特別注意,因為這可能影響到寶寶的睡眠。這些都是我們可以從小注意和改善的地方,對孩子的健康成長很有幫助。

這些研究結果可以幫助家長們更好地理解孩子的睡眠,並且提供了一些實用的建議,幫助家庭創造一個更加健康和快樂的成長環境。

 

 

參考資料

Longitudinal sleep multi-trajectories from age 1 to 5.5 years and their early correlates: results from the Étude Longitudinale Française depuis l’Enfance birth cohort study https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsad236

 

----------------------English version, translated by ChatGpt---------

Scientists studied 9,273 children from the "Étude Longitudinale Française depuis l’Enfance" (ELFE) French Children Longitudinal Study, observing their sleep patterns from age 1 to 5.5 years. They identified five distinct sleep multi-trajectory groups and analyzed the associations between these sleep patterns and early family environment, maternal conditions, and child characteristics.

Five sleep multi-trajectory groups:

  1. Good sleepers: Shorter nighttime sleep but longer daytime sleep.
  2. Long sleepers: Longer sleep durations both at night and during the day.
  3. Good sleepers with occasional sleep-onset difficulties: Longer sleep durations at night and during the day, but with a peak in sleep-onset difficulties at age 3.5.
  4. Improving group with night awakenings and sleep-onset difficulties: Shorter nighttime sleep that gradually increases, with improvements in night awakenings and sleep-onset difficulties.
  5. Persistent night awakenings and sleep-onset difficulties group: Continuing issues with night awakenings and sleep-onset difficulties from age 1 to 5.5.

 

The study reveals that although initial differences seem substantial, they tend to stabilize around ages 2-3.

 

Regarding daytime naps, the study shows that by around age 3.5, children generally stop napping during the day. The study also details sleep duration and distribution at different ages: about 10-11 hours of nighttime sleep, with gradually decreasing daytime nap times.

 

Why do some children have poor sleep? Early environmental influences are significant!

 

  • Maternal mood is crucial: If the mother is in a bad mood during pregnancy, it can affect the baby's sleep, especially in children who frequently wake up at night or have difficulty falling asleep.
  • Feeding habits are key: The sleep problems in babies might not be due to breastfeeding itself, but rather associated with adult habits, such as feeding methods at night.
  • Pacifiers or thumb sucking: The study found that babies who sucked pacifiers or thumbs at age 1 slept better at night, possibly aiding in easier sleep onset.
 
  • Self-soothing ability: At age 1, children who could fall asleep on their own in a room without parents tended to sleep better.
 
  • Children who fall asleep and wake up in their own beds and those cared for by a family member during the day also tended to sleep better.

 

Conclusion

So, what should we do? This study highlights the importance of fostering good sleep habits. Parents need to understand their children's sleep needs and help them establish healthy sleep patterns. For instance, assisting children in learning to soothe themselves, rather than always relying on adults to lull them to sleep. 
 
Additionally, if a mother is in a bad mood during pregnancy, this may need special attention as it could impact the baby's sleep. These are aspects we can pay attention to and improve from a young age, greatly benefiting children's healthy growth.
 
These research findings can help parents better understand their children's sleep and provide practical advice to create a healthier and happier growth environment for families.

 

 

 

Reference: 

Longitudinal sleep multi-trajectories from age 1 to 5.5 years and their early correlates: results from the Étude Longitudinale Française depuis l’Enfance birth cohort study https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsad236

 

 

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