睡眠不足怎麼辦?關於補眠和午睡






根據許多國內外的調查,學齡期兒童和青少年的睡眠不足的狀況很多;該怎麼辦呢?


現況


大約6成的國中小學生是睡不夠久的,而且隨著年齡長大,睡眠不足的比例也是逐漸上升。此外,因為星期一到星期五的睡眠不足,孩子在星期六和星期日的補眠狀況也十分常見。









造成睡眠不足的最主要因素:課業


根據新加坡這幾年的研究,課業因素是這群孩子睡不夠的最主要原因。而且功課愈重,睡得愈少。下圖可以發現在周一到周五的晚上,"寫完功課"是準備睡覺的最主要原因,但到了周末,"覺得想睡"就變成就寢的主要原因。此外,以"寫完功課"為主因的孩子,真地在周一到周五的晚上的睡眠長度就比較少,到了周末就沒有觀察到這個現象了!












其它因素包括:學校的第一堂課時間、使用媒體的時間、通勤時間長短、年紀和學校型態。所以家長們可以發現有些因素是可改變的,例如孩子使用3C媒體的時間;許多研究都證實3C等電子產品的使用會減少這個族群的睡眠長度。





靠學校衛教的效果不佳

每個人都知道睡眠的重要性,如果在學校幫孩子們增加睡眠相關知識和時間管理技巧,是否能增加孩子的睡眠長度呢?! 新加坡的研究(參考資料6)顯示:不行!! 因為知易行難,而且外界因素(例如上課時間、考試)不改變,單純靠衛教的成效不張。



解決之道

  • 午睡

不論是新加坡(連結)或是中國大陸(如下圖)的研究,都顯示午睡對孩子在許多方面都有好處,甚至包括成績、自我評價和情緒(尤其是憂鬱感覺)。










但是需要注意的是午睡的長度是不是愈長愈好呢?在新加坡的研究是只讓孩子補眠1.5小時,而中國大陸的研究最多也只討論到大於60分鐘;由於午睡太久,可能會影響夜晚的入睡哦。



  • 周末補眠

對於平時睡眠不足的孩子,周末補眠是有益的,但是補眠並不會完全讓已經受到影響的功能完全恢復,所以平日能多睡,還是要多睡一點。此外,周末補眠超過2小時並不會比較好




結論

由於大環境沒辦法立即改變,所以面對睡眠不足的孩子,家長們可以試著讓孩子在上學期間多一點午睡的機會,在周末期間讓孩子補眠;但要留意的是也不能睡太久哦!還是要以能維持規律作息為主。





參考資料

  • Neurobehavioral Impact of Successive Cycles of Sleep Restriction With and Without Naps in Adolescents, Sleep 2017
  • Association between weekend catch-up sleep and executive functions in Chinese school-aged children, JCSM 2020
  • Midday napping in children: associations between nap frequency and duration across cognitive, positive psychological well-being, behavioral, and metabolic health outcomes, Sleep 2019
  • Cognitive effects of split and continuous sleep schedules in adolescents differ according to total sleep opportunity, Sleep 2020
  • Associations of sleep duration on school nights with self-rated health, overweight, and depression symptoms in adolescents: problems and possible solutions, Sleep Medicine 2019
  • Associations of time spent on homework or studying with nocturnal sleep behavior and depression symptoms in adolescents from Singapore, Sleep Health 2020
  • Evaluation of an interactive school-based sleep education program: a cluster-randomized controlled trial, Sleep Health 2020
  •  
 
 
 
============English Version, translated by ChatGpt==========
 
According to various domestic and international surveys, many school-aged children and adolescents are experiencing sleep deprivation. What can be done about this?

Current Situation


Approximately 60% of middle and elementary school students are not getting enough sleep, and this percentage tends to increase with age. Moreover, due to insufficient sleep from Monday to Friday, it's common for children to catch up on sleep during Saturdays and Sundays.


Primary Factor Causing Sleep Deprivation: Academics


Studies from Singapore in recent years have identified academics as the primary reason for insufficient sleep in this group. The heavier the homework load, the less they sleep. During Monday to Friday nights, "finishing homework" is the main reason for going to bed, but on weekends, "feeling sleepy" becomes the primary reason. Children who go to bed after finishing homework tend to sleep less during the week, but this is not observed during weekends.

Other Factors Include:


- The time when school starts
- Screen time
- Commute time
- Age and type of school

Parents can influence some of these factors, such as reducing screen time. Numerous studies confirm that the use of electronic devices decreases sleep duration in this group.


**Effectiveness of School Health Education**


While everyone understands the importance of sleep, can increasing sleep-related knowledge and time management skills in school help increase children's sleep duration? According to a Singapore study (Reference 6), the answer is no. This is because it's easier said than done, and without changing external factors (like class times, exams), solely relying on health education is ineffective.


Solutions


1. Nap


Studies from both Singapore and Mainland China show that napping has many benefits for children, including improvements in academic performance, self-esteem, and mood (especially in reducing feelings of depression).

However, it's important to note that longer naps aren't necessarily better. The study in Singapore allowed children to catch up on sleep for only 1.5 hours, and the study from Mainland China discussed naps lasting no more than 60 minutes. Napping too long can affect nighttime sleep.

2. Weekend Catch-up Slee*


For children who are sleep-deprived during the week, catching up on sleep over the weekend is beneficial. However, this does not completely restore the functions already affected by sleep deprivation. Also, sleeping more than 2 hours extra on weekends isn't necessarily better.


Conclusion


Since the larger environment cannot be immediately changed, parents of children suffering from sleep deprivation can try to allow more opportunities for napping during school days and catch-up sleep on weekends. However, it's important not to sleep too much and to maintain a regular routine.


熱門文章

  • 最近有機會整理一些門診常被問到3個問題,這一篇主要針對年齡介於1到2歲之間的孩子。
  • 作息記錄 進入3C盛行,手機不離身的時代, 記錄幼兒作息,尤其是睡眠時間的方法, 從傳統的紙筆(睡眠日誌),也進化到許許多多的App和穿戴裝置。…
  • 針對孩子的睡眠問題,家家有本難念的經, 每個家庭也有都自己的解決方法。 而睡眠醫學領域裡,比較能被量化分析的,大概就屬 行為治療 了。 …
  • 有些孩子明明晚上都有睡飽睡好,為什麼白天還會一直想睡覺呢?甚至講話講沒幾句就會睡著!上課時,明明是一堂老師上得很棒也很有興趣的課,卻只要坐在椅子…
  • 醫生,我的孩子6個月大,以前都睡得很好,可是最近不知道怎麼搞的,入睡約1-2小時後會突然醒過來大哭,是那種閉著眼睛狂哭,而且抱也不是、哄也…
  • 1. 四歲六個月大男童,過往沒有重大傷病史,懷孕和出生過程均正常;四歲之前的睡眠狀況沒明顯異常。來診時,由母親帶來,表示從四歲開始,晚上入睡後2 …
  • 在針對有睡眠問題的兒童,除了探討原因之外,藥物治療往往不是首選,反而透過適當的 行為治療 來幫助孩子自行入睡才是比較多學者專家建議的方法。 那…
  • 在談到處理 夜驚(night terror) 等與清醒相關的睡眠疾病時,有一個很有效的行為治療方式: 定期喚醒( scheduled aw…
  • 有些孩子睡覺一定要配"奶",不管是親餵(配乳房),或是奶粉!沒奶就睡不著,有時候喝個幾口就睡著,好像也不是真地肚子餓,這就是…

Archive

加入好友